How to make Pancakes | Fluffy Pancake Recipe

This recipe makes the softest fluffiest pancakes and most if not all of the ingredients you should be able to find in your kitchen. Pour yourself a cup of coffee and whip these up for brunch this weekend. Start by measuring out a cup and half of all purpose flour into a large mixing bowl.

This recipe makes enough for 3-4 people so if you are cooking for more just double the recipe. You can find a printable version on my website, or check the information box below for the measurements.

In the same bowl as the flour measure out 4 teaspoons of baking powder.

4 may seem like a lot, but this is the secret to getting the softest, fluffiest pancakes. As the pancakes cook the baking powder is going to react and create an abundance of air, getting that perfect pancake texture. Lastly to the dry ingredients add a pinch of salt. You can add sugar here as well if you would like, around a tablespoon, but I prefer to add sweetness with toppings rather than with the actual pancake.

Use a wooden spoon to mix the dry ingredients together until they are combined. Set the bowl to the side. In a smaller bowl to mix together the wet ingredients. First crack in on large free range egg, followed by the milk. I’m using dairy but you can substitute with soy or almond if you would like.

To the egg and milk add in a 1/4 cup of cooled melted butter. Use a fork to mix everything together, making sure the egg is well incorporated. This is optional, but I love a hint of vanilla. Add half a teaspoon of pure vanilla essence and mix again.

How to make Pancakes | Fluffy Pancake Recipe

Make a well in flour and pour in the wet ingredients.

Fold the batter together with a wooden spoon until there are no longer any large lumps.. Make sure you’re not over mixing as this will lead to your pancakes being quite tough. I’ve kept these pancakes quite pain but if you do want to add blueberries or chocolate chips, or any other flavourings now would be a good time. When you are ready to cook the pancakes heat a heavy bottomed pan like cast iron over medium low heat.

When the pan has heated add a small amount of butter to the pan to melt. Scoop out about a 1/3 of a cup of batter and pour into the pan. Leave the pancake to spread on it’s own and cook for a few minutes. You’ll know it’s ready to flip when air bubbles start to form on the top. If you are unsure just use a spatula to lift up the side and check the bottom.

Flip and cook for a further few minutes on the opposite side.

If your pancakes are browning a little to quickly just adjust the heat. Place the cooked pancake on a plate and repeat with the next. You should get about 6 or 7 pancakes out of this recipe so continue until you are out of batter. Top the pancakes with maple syrup and any of your other favourite toppings.

Send me a photo if you try out this recipe, I would love to see your favourite pancake topping. Thank you for watching, I hope you enjoyed this recipe and I will see you in my next video. Bye..

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Acupuncture for Sinus Pressure and Congestion

Here is an example of what the needle looks like. We actually sometimes compare it to a cat’s whisker. It’s nothing like a hypodermic needle that you’ll see in a doctor’s office. We say about 10 of these would actually fit in the tip of the hypodermic needle. These are very fine so that’s why there’s really no pain really associated with acupuncture needling.

Let’s do the first needle. I am going to have you take a deep breath in. And exhale. Nacha: How are you doing? Dr.

Hart: Good, have you started? Nacha: And we will place one more on the other side. Anytime we needle, we always needle bilaterally. That means that we needle both sides. Nacha: How is that?

Dr. Hart: Good! Nacha: Great, and now you see me place a few constitutional needling points. One will be stomach 36. This point is one of our most nourishing points.

As I mentioned earlier, we like to use some nourishing points that are gonna have actually helped build the qi in the body. So it is this one here.

Acupuncture for Sinus Pressure and Congestion

One more we will try is long 7. As I mentioned earlier the long meridian is the meridian focused on building wei qi, that protective qi. There we go!

So that is what a sinus treatment would look like. We probably would add a few more needles but you are able to get the idea. Nacha: Dr. Hart, how do you feel? Dr.

Hart: I feel great. Nacha: Acupuncture actually induces a very deep relaxation during the treatment. Once all the needles are placed in, I will dim the lights and you will feel deeply relaxed. And almost everyone says that’s the best sleep they get usually after an acupuncture treatment. It really helps release all of those endorphins that help relax the system.

I hope you enjoyed this brief introduction to acupuncture..

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Jamie Oliver on making the perfect omelette – Jamie’s Ministry of Food

Hi guys,

Welcome to the ministry of food We gonna do omelettes. Omelettes are fantastic! They’re cheap, they’re flexible you can use all sorts of different things: crispy bacon, mushrooms, tomatoes, cheeses, you name it! I think omelettes are the kind of thing that don’t really get the sort of credit that’s due actually if they are cooked beautifully they are incredible They are cheap! Eggs are one of the best forms of protein Go free range organic eggs!

You’ll be laughin’ Personally I use three eggs for a main course omelette Just crack them in like this Get your egg, crack it on the side, open it up… if for any reason you got shell in there use the half of the shell to get the shell out And if you try with your fingers, you’ll be going like this all night, and it won’t work! So, pinch of salt.


And pepper…

Like that! Some people put milk and cream… I don’t!

… At all!.

.. I got a pan, the right sized pan…

about, sort of, 7 inches, I guess… That’s on a medium heat whisk up your eggs..

. Just a little bit of oil… extra virgin’s obviously is a nicer way to go a knob of butter in there.

.. let that start to melt…

give it a cheevy about in the pan you wanna coat the bottom of the pan like that The great thing about omelettes and eggs is that if you get the first one wrong, then learn from it, try again and just get it perfect! If is too dark, cook it less If is too hard, cook it less If is too soft, cook it more So… we’re gonna turn that down a little bit there You want it about medium heat, don’t rush it, otherwise if you cook eggs too hard and too fast, you get this kind of horrible.

… ..

..horrible sort of crispiness to it which we don’t like…

Now, for the first 20 seconds…

You can bring in..

. the eggs… from the sides, like this.

.. and where is a gap, there, don’t worry just tilt the pan…

and then you can bring it in here, and then you can tilt the pan just like this, all right? and then, after about 30 seconds, you’ll wanna squiggle the egg around one last time and turn the heat down a bit and I’m putting a little bit of cheddar cheese in now you could use all sorts of different cheese… but I think cheddar cheese is just great you need the tiniest amount and this is just for a basic omelette so I just grate the cheese over the omelette like this.

.. You can see that the eggs still look a little soft around here That’s good news…

Coz the egg…you don’t want it to be overcooked and hard, You want it to be silky and delicious But, yes! You don’t want it raw!

So…just gonna let it just take over on a low heat now for about..

.40 seconds Just as this sort of…softness of the eggs just start turning.

.. You can just look at it, you can see it You can see the egg changed color Then you get your slice like this…

You can just go around the edges… don’t sort of over touch it..

. just go around the edges… and just lodge it.

.. non-stick pans for this, really essential, I think unless you got a good old cast-iron one See if you can move the omelette like that…

. Can you see how the omelette’s moving? all right. So in theory I shouldn’t get any grief So what I do then, is: I tilt the omelette away put my spatula..

into one side like this… get it underneath..

. I don’t want to overcook the omelette and then just flap it, like that, that’s all we want And that is heavenly you can see a tiny bit of colour there… which is.

..enough loads of colour and it’s gone hard…

Then all I do… is just serve it! And in the middle there.

.. you’ll have a beautiful omelette I mean that…

you know, as a snack, with a salad, cold meats… just on its own, a tiny bit of ketchup, lovely, chopped tomatoes, you can start making your own omelettes up just by frying, let’s say, mushrooms first, then..


doing your omelette like that… you could fry crispy bacon first and then put the eggs into it.

.. so you can really make so many different things out of an omelette And I want to show you inside, here what you don’t want is like an overcooked egg, cos’ it’s boring what you want is…

that sort of… fantastically soft..

. silky… sort of inside.

.. Can you see it in there? You want it to be soft and silky..

. Alright? It’s not a raw egg. Is just lovely..

. lovely melted cheese. 9 out of 10 Oliver See if you can get your eggs that good Good luck! And if you’re gonna pass that on home or at the work place this is a great dish to do Simple, but brilliant! Good luck!


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How to Master Email Marketing (2023)

Are you really just going to sit here and pretend that email marketing isn’t one of the most important parts of your business? We are? [MUSIC PLAYING] OK. For everyone else though, the data tells us that there are 4.3 billion, with a B, email users worldwide.

With certainly more than half of the planet using email, your business can’t afford to not have an email marketing strategy. And unlike those social media platforms with their confusing features and constantly changing algorithm and no one liking your posts for whatever reason, email marketing is relatively straightforward. What’s up? I’m Jamal from HubSpot. In this video, I’m going to teach you the basics of email marketing, setting you up with a foundation for success that can last for years.

If you find this useful, be sure to like this video and subscribe to the HubSpot YouTube channel. [MUSIC PLAYING] So, how do you become a master email marketer? Put simply, it’s divided into three steps. One, build your list. Two, maintain the health of that list.

And three, email that list with valuable content every time. Let’s start by building your list. When building your email list, there’s really one rule and one rule only. And that’s, never buy or rent a list. And actually there are more rules, but let’s just focus on that one for now.

Buying or renting an email list can lead to low open-rates, bad brand appearance, and even hefty fines from privacy protection agencies. So what should you do to build up a quality email list? Well, here at HubSpot, we built our email list by producing free ebooks that users discovered when searching for topics like introduction to data visualization or how to become an influencer.

Maybe you can offer free trial of your service or an online seminar or other experience. Whatever you offer, it needs to be something valuable enough to convince users to part with their personal email information.

In addition to the landing page, most websites will let you place a pop-up to collect email. Set one to appear after the user has spent some time on your site which indicates that they’re receiving value and might be open to more information.

And if your business involves online ordering, make sure customers are prompted to opt into your email list when making a purchase. Why is it important that users opt in? Well, having users opt in means they want to hear from you.

It also keeps you compliant with the ever-stricter antispam policies being implemented by governments as well as email services themselves. A double opt in is even more effective since it requires the user to open and click an automated email they receive when signing up. This not only prevents users from giving fake emails, but it also trains their email app to recognize quality messages from you. And with that, we just got to the spam folder. Way to go.

How you go about building your email lists, will set the stage for future success.

But just as important is how you maintain your list. This means periodically scrubbing your email list to remove emails that bounce or addresses that never open your emails. A good rule of thumb is to scrub your list every six to 12 months. You might be wondering, what’s the harm in emailing people who don’t open them?

Right? Why can’t I just– I should be able to do that, right? Well, another metric that email algorithms use to determine if something is spam, is the engagement ratio. The more you send emails that never get opened, the more likely the email services will eventually categorize your emails as spam. Makes sense?

The good news is that despite these increasing obstacles to email deliverability, the overall value of email marketing is actually on the rise. In 2010, Digital Marketing Association put the return on email marketing at $40 for every dollar spent.

By 2019, that return increased to $42 for every dollar spent. Why has the ROI gone up? Because I’m opening everyone’s emails for them.

No. But actually though, a major reason is an increased use of segmentation in email marketing. Segmentation means dividing your email list into smaller groups so you can send each segment content specific to their interests. You can segment your list by demographic data, like location, company size, or anything else that’s important for your business. But the real email managers use what’s called behavioral segmentation which is grouping based on how the user previously interacted with your brand.

Things like previous purchases, lifecycle stages, and customer loyalty. Creating triggered email flows for specific behaviors allow you to be responsive to your user’s needs. So it’s no wonder that 77% of email marketing ROI comes from these sorts of segmented, targeted trigger campaigns. It’s the best tool for getting your audience the valuable content they’ll want to open because they know it’s tailored to their interests. And that– that’s inbound, baby.

How to Master Email Marketing  (2023)

Which brings us to our final step in mastering email marketing. Send valuable emails. The average office worker receives around 120 emails per day. That is many. Out of that 120, 40 are important business emails that require a response.

That leaves 80 other emails vying for attention. The only way to stand out is by having a super click bait title for the subject line.

That’s a real tip. You should do that. No.

The only actual ways to stand out by offering something your subscribers want to click on because it somehow improves their lives. Think about a company like OpenTable who uses subscriber’s past behavior to offer useful discounts or recommend new restaurants. Or Spotify who send regular emails notifying users of new music by artists they follow. These are great examples of valuable emails that subscribers want to receive and are happy to open. One more useful tip.

Whenever you’re recommending something to your subscriber, be sure to remind them of the activity that triggered the recommendation. That way they associate the good feeling of the previous experience with the new one you’re offering. Now, when it comes to emails, conveying value starts with the subject line. This can mean literally telling the recipient what they’ll get from opening the email.

And try to do it in 50 characters or less.

Use those 50 characters to peak the customer’s interest. Don’t give everything away up front. Like me with Bobby Jenkins in the fourth grade. I gave him my Goku action figure. And then he just– he didn’t talk to me anymore after that.

Leave a bit of mystery so they’ll feel compelled to open the email to no more. Just be sure that whatever you tease in the subject line is actually delivered in the body of the email. No one likes deceptive click-baity subject lines.

I was kidding before. And 69% of spam reports come from subject lines alone.

So watch out. Now, you can also use the preheader. That is the first few words in the body of your email that get previewed in your inbox to support the subject line. Most email marketing systems will allow you to set the preheader when you enter the subject line, so you don’t have to worry about altering the actual body copy of your email. And always A/B test your subject line so that each email you send, teaches you something for the next one.

So all the messages from your email list have been delivered. And thanks to your brilliant subject line and preheader, good job. Folks are itching to read what you sent them. So what are you going to say? [MUSIC PLAYING] Crafting killer email copy could be its own video.

Until that time, here’s some tips. Tip number one. Keep text neat and simple with the main point upfront. Use short sentences with lots of paragraph breaks. Save those verbose-think pieces for your blog.

This is an email. Tip number two. Write for your audience. Remember those list segments we made? This is why they’re so important.

And tip number three. Write in a friendly one-to-one style. This isn’t just a good way to treat your customers, it also helps for your email from getting tagged as spam. And speaking of spam, HubSpot keeps an extensive list of spam trigger words that you should avoid when writing email copy. There will be a link in the video description below.

And if you don’t click on it, I’ll be sent to the spam folder. You should also run your email through a spam test before sending it, to make sure your formatting punctuation and fonts all pass through the filters. There are plenty of free spam checkers online you can use. You’d be amazed how a few tiny tweaks can make a huge difference. So, when it comes to email marketing, sending valuable content in a compliant format to users who you know want to receive it, will allow you to execute successful campaigns for years to come.

Happy email. I’m off to the spam folder. I don’t know why that’s like my “I messed up sound.” But it is, and we’re rolling with it. [MUSIC PLAYING].

Read More: How to Start a Digital Marketing Agency in 2019 [SMMA]

Read More: Cullen Nurseries – Native Trees and Hedging.

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Tasty Tuesday: Lentil Soup

(upbeat music) – [Narrator] Today, I will be sharing with you, one of my favorite recipes which is lentils and it is very easy, very fast to cook, very inexpensive and highly, highly nutritious with very low calories. As you can see, nutrition plays a vital role for overall good health and it promotes wellness, complete physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being. Well, these are the ingredients that we will be needing and most of them we already have at home and I already have all the ingredients prepared. Remember, before we cook we needed to wash our hands, thoroughly wash all veggies, all utensils that we’re gonna be needing, hygiene, hygiene. These are the instructions, Soup Lentil.

Tasty Tuesday: Lentil Soup

It is very easy, very tasty, very nutritious and that is it. If you just taste it and you can serve it in your favorite bowl and this is how it’s gonna look. And it smells delicious and it tastes delicious..

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The new US tax law, explained with cereal

Ever since they won control of the government in 2016. Republicans have been obsessed with getting this one thing done. Tax reform. We’re going to have a phenomenal tax reform. They’ve passed a bill, the President has signed it, so let’s break down what’s actually going to change.

Imagine that instead of getting paid in dollars, you got paid in cereal. The government takes a certain amount of cereal in taxes. And it uses it to pay other people to do things build roads, fly fighter jets, do research. You get the picture. The more you earn, the bigger the share of your cereal the government takes.

Sometimes the government wants to incentivize you to do certain things with your cereal. Like if you buy a house for a hundred pieces of cereal, and then sell it for 200 pieces of cereal, you’d normally have to pay capital gains taxes on that profit. But there’s a special loophole that says you don’t have to. The tax code is full of loopholes like this, which means if everyone puts their cereal together, there would be two bowls.

One that the government dips into for taxes, and one it doesn’t.

Now, Republicans want the government to take a smaller portion. And they say they want people to keep more of the cereal. But if they do that, the government won’t have enough cereal to pay for what it needs. So part of this new law is taking some of the cereal that’s not taxed, and change the rules so that it is taxable. That way, the government can take a smaller share of the cereal but still pay for the stuff it needs.

This is what politicians mean when they talk about ‘broadening the tax base.’ Here’s the problem: Republicans aren’t broadening the base enough.

They’re taking a lot less cereal from people and adding some new taxable cereal but not enough to pay for what the government needs. To pay for that stuff, the government is going to have to go into debt. This means they’re going to have to take even more cereal, years in the future to pay back the debt they’re taking out now.

Republicans think this will help grow the total amount of cereal available to both tax payers and the government. So what happens to that 1.5 trillion dollar gap? It goes back into people’s bowls but not everyone gets the same share.

If you break the population into five equally sized groups based on how much they earned in 2017 and look at how much each group will earn in 2018 every group does get a tax cut.

But fast forward ten years and you can see that lower and middle class Americans will actually pay more since their tax cuts aren’t permanent. And if you break that top group into smaller groups you can see the very wealthiest benefit most of all. So while this new law does close some loopholes to bring in new tax revenue The bill’s larger purpose is to realize the Republican vision of a fairer tax code.

One in which the wealthiest pay a lot less..

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How tax brackets actually work

These are tax brackets for 2019. Simple, right? But many of us make a common mistake when looking at this. Let’s say my income is $84,000. You might think that puts me in the third bracket.

So I would owe the federal government 22% of my income. This is wrong. And it’s causing us to have uninformed debates about tax policy. Here’s how it actually works. Let’s go back to my $84,000 income.

Now, instead of thinking of tax rates as brackets, we should think of them as pockets. But first there’s one special pocket we need to talk about. The money we put in this pocket is not taxed. The government automatically lets single people put $12,000 in this special pocket — and more for couples. But if you spend a lot of money on things like medical expenses or charitable donations, you can sometimes put in more.

These are called “deductions.” With the $70,000 that’s left over we can start filling up the pockets.

How tax brackets actually work

This first pocket has room for $9,700, so I only pay 10% on this money. Then I pay 12% on the money in the next pocket. And then 22% on the money in this pocket.

These are called marginal tax rates. And that’s how these brackets actually work. So if I get a raise, that new money goes into the first pocket with empty space. When space runs out, we put it in the next pocket. So the raise, and only the raise, would be partially taxed at 22%.

And partially at 24%. So, when politicians say they want to raise the top tax rate, it doesn’t necessarily mean these pockets — and your money — are affected. They’re talking about the tax rates on the pockets way over there, which are only used once people have filled in these smaller one. Marginal tax rates are a pretty simple concept, once you get the hang of it. So the next time a politician says the government wants to “take away 70% of your income” just send them this video.

Read More: How to Start a Digital Marketing Agency in 2019 [SMMA]

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Metabolism & Nutrition, Part 1: Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology #36

I weigh about 80 kilograms. Most of that, let’s say 64 percent, is water — though you can’t tell by looking. I mean, as organisms go, I like to think that I look fairly solid. After water, the next largest proportion of me is protein, about 16% — not just in my muscles, but also in things like the tiny sodium-potassium pumps in my neurons, and the hemoglobin in my blood, and the enzymes driving the chemical reactions in every one of my 37 trillion cells. Then another 16% of me is fat, which I’m totally OK with; Four percent of me is minerals, like the calcium and phosphorus in my bones, and the iron in my blood; and 1 percent is carbohydrates, most of which is either being consumed as I talk to you, or is sitting around as glycogen waiting to be used.

But here’s the thing: It’s not like I just ate 80 kilograms of food and then all this happened. Instead, my body, like yours, is constantly acquiring stuff, extracting some of it to keep, burning some of it for energy, and getting rid of the rest. But even the stuff that my body does hold onto doesn’t last forever. Some of the chemicals that I absorb in my food eventually become a part of me. But enzymes wear out, and membranes break down, and DNA gets oxidized.

So, they get discarded. And then I need more of those chemicals to reconstruct the material that I’ve lost. As a result, over the course of my lifetime, my cells will synthesize somewhere between 225 and 450 kilograms of protein … That’s like 3, or 4, or 5 separate me’s — just made of protein.

And all of the protein and fat and carbohydrates nucleic acids that make up me, of course, come from food. Every organism has to keep taking in and breaking down food, to keep resupplying itself with the raw materials it needs to survive.

And all that activity requires energy, which we also gain from food. So, how do our bodies actually convert what we eat into energy and raw materials? The answer is a neverending series of reactions that are dedicated to doing two vital, and totally contradictory, things: One set of chemical reactions destroys the reactants that you give them, reducing big, complex substances into molecular rubble. And the other set reassembles that rubble into new and bigger products that are put together again to make you.

So our bodies are constantly reinventing themselves — in a perpetual state of loss, but also always rebuilding.

And even though all of this is happening at the cellular level, its consequences could hardly be larger. These two sets of reactions are where everything that we’ve learned so far — about the digestive, endocrine, circulatory, and respiratory systems — really starts to come together. Together, these processes make up your metabolism. Now the sciencey word metabolism has come to have a meaning in popular speech, but metabolism isn’t just one thing. People talk about metabolism as meaning, like, how fast your body burns the fuel in your food, or how high your personal energy level is.

And that’s fine for use by personal trainers and fitness magazines. But physiologically, metabolism really describes every single biochemical reaction that goes on in your body. And maybe more importantly, it reconciles two conflicting chemical processes that are always, simultaneously underway inside of you. One of those chemical forces is anabolism. Anabolic reactions construct things and consume energy.

These are the processes that take the small monomer building blocks in your food — like monosaccharides and fatty and amino acids — and build them into bigger, more complex polymers like carbs, and fats, and proteins that are used in your cells. Then, when you need new building blocks, or you need to release some energy, those polymers in your body, or new ones in your food, get broken up — by catabolic reactions.

The processes of catabolism break down bigger molecules, and in breaking their bonds, release the energy you need to stay warm, and move around, and provide your cells with fuel … to build the polymers back up again. To be honest, your metabolism is a lot like Sisyphus. It works really hard.

But it is never finished. And the boulder that your inner Sisyphus is always pushing uphill and watching fall back down? That’s nutrients — the molecules that your body is forever breaking up, and then rebuilding, only to have them break apart again. And these nutrients — the materials your body needs to build, maintain and repair itself — come in six major groups. By volume, the majority of what we consume — and what makes up our bodies — is water, so that’s maybe the most vital nutrient.

Then there are vitamins, compounds that come in either fat-soluble or water soluble forms. They aren’t used as building blocks or for energy, but they’re essential in helping the body make use of other nutrients that do do those things.

Vitamin C, for example, helps improve iron absorption, while vitamin K is crucial to blood clotting, and some B vitamins are important in the production of ATP from glucose. Minerals, like vitamins, they don’t provide fuel, but they have all sorts of other functions. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus harden bones and teeth, while iron is, of course, crucial in hemoglobin.

Plus, potassium, sodium, and chlorine help maintain your body’s pH balance and are used in action potentials. So water, vitamins, and minerals are all … necessary. But the three major nutrients that everyone always talks about — the ones you find on food labels, from oatmeal to Pop-Tarts — are carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Most of the carbohydrates you’ve ever eaten — with the exception of lactose in milk — originally came from plants.

Mono- and disaccharides come from fruits, honey, sugar beets and sugar cane, while polysaccharide starches come from veggies and grains.

The main thing you need to know is that the monosaccharide glucose is the be-all-end-all molecular fuel that your cells need to make ATP. ATP being the molecule that your cells use to drive anabolic reactions, when they need to make new polymers or get anything else done — whether that’s operating a sodium-potassium pump, or detaching the head of a myosin filament to contract a muscle. But ATP is too unstable to store, so cells often store energy in the form of glucose, which they can then catabolize and convert to ATP when they need it.

Metabolism & Nutrition, Part 1: Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology #36

Now, some of your cells can get their energy from fats. But many of the most important ones, like your neurons and red blood cells, feed exclusively on glucose.

So most of the carbs that your intestines absorb are converted to glucose for that reason. But, if it’s not needed right away, that energy can also get stored as glycogen in your liver and muscles, or converted to glycerol and fatty acids to make triglyceride fats. And even though there seems to be a marketing war going on against dietary fats, we most definitely need them. The fats in your adipose tissue store energy, of course, but they also store fat-soluble vitamins, and cushion your organs. Lipids also form the myelin that insulates the neurons in your brain and throughout your body, as well as the oil in your skin, and they provide the vital calorie content found in breast milk.

But there are other important lipids, like cholesterol, which is the precursor to things like testosterone and estrogen… ..

.and, of course, phospholipids, which form the cell membrane in every single one of the three-dozen-or-so-trillion cells you have. Now, if you’re into eating meat, a lot of the fat that you ingest might come from that. But guess what: Plants have fat too. Plants use lipids for energy storage just like we do, except they do it in fruits, and nuts, and seeds.

Which, when you think of it, are kind of like plant breast milk — it’s food for their growing babies. Either way, though, when you eat lipids, your body breaks down triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids. Those molecules can then be processed and used in the making of ATP.

Or they might be converted into other kinds of fatty acids, which your cells can then re-assemble into your very own triglycerides or phospholipids. And your liver happens to be great at converting one fatty acid into another, but there are some it just can’t synthesize.

For example, omega 6 and 3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids, because your body can’t make them, so they have to be ingested. They get turned into all kinds of useful molecules, like the ones used for synapse formation in the brain, and for signalling inflammation during the healing process. But — if carbohydrates provide energy, and fats insulate and store energy, then just about everything else is done with proteins. They form the bulk of your muscle and connective tissue, but they’re also what the ion channels and pumps are made of in your neurons and muscle cells, and they make up your enzymes, which are responsible for pretty much every chemical reaction in your body.

In other words, your body runs on protein, and pretty much is protein.

Nutritionally speaking, meats, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, cereals are particularly high in protein. But because everything we eat was once alive, and every cell of every living thing contains protein, as long as you’re eating whole foods, you’re at least partially re-stocking your protein supplies. Now it might seem like you’d have eat muscle to make muscle, or eat enzymes to make enzymes, but that’s not how it works. Since all of your proteins are made up of just 20 amino acids, the differences between the thousands of unique proteins are simply in the sequence of those amino acids. And, of course, you have a specialized molecule that knows just which amino acids to put together in what order to make a certain protein.

It’s called DNA. When you consume some hamburger, for example, the protein actin in the meat gets catabolized into its component amino acids, which gets mixed up with all the amino acids from the other proteins in the meat — like the collagen and elastin and titin and myosin — as well as all the protein from the bun and the tomato and the mayonnaise.

Those amino acids then get reassembled using anabolic reactions into your very own, but somewhat different, proteins, as defined by your DNA. Each cell is like a picky little Gordon Ramsay and it has to have every amino acid needed — every ingredient present — before it will even think about starting to make a protein. And just like with your lipids, your cells can improvise, and convert some amino acids to others if they’re missing an ingredient.

However, there are nine essential amino acids that you cannot make from others, and have to eat. Now lots of foods don’t provide every essential amino acid, but when you combine foods, like beans and rice, or pasta and cheese, you do get all of the essential amino acids. Which is important because, remember: after water, you are mostly made of protein. On the order of 16% But what about the one percent of you? The carbohydrates?

How that tiniest fraction of you ends up creating all of the energy, is what we’ll discover next time.

But for now, you’ve learned all about the vital nutrients — including water, vitamins, minerals, carbs, fats, and proteins — as well as how anabolic reactions build structures and require energy, while catabolic reactions tear things apart and release energy. And together, these competing forces form the wonderfully conflicted process known as metabolism. Thank you to our Headmaster of Learning, Linnea Boyev, and thanks to all of our Patreon patrons whose monthly contributions help make Crash Course possible, not only for themselves, but for everyone, everywhere. If you like Crash Course and want to help us keep making videos like this, you can go to patreon.

com/crashcourse This episode was filmed in the Doctor Cheryl C.

Kinney Crash Course Studio, it was written by Kathleen Yale, edited by Blake de Pastino, and our consultant is Dr. Brandon Jackson. It was directed by Nicholas Jenkins, edited by Nicole Sweeney; our sound designer is Michael Aranda, and the Graphics team is Thought Cafe..

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Abdominal strengthening exercises: Level 1

This video has been developed by the women’s and men’s health physiotherapy team at Oxford  University Hospitals, please follow the exercises in this video as guided by your physiotherapist.  Our contact details are provided at the end of the video should you have any questions regarding  these exercises. This video includes a series of exercises designed to strengthen the deep  abdominal muscles, but firstly we’re going to recap how we can effectively contract the deep  abdominal muscles. Your starting position will be determined by the exercise that you’re about to  perform, it may involve you being on your back, on your side, or resting on your hands and knees. For  the purpose of this recap Natalie is going to stay on her back, additionally you may wish to place a  towel underneath your head if you’re lying on your back or lying on your side.

Now we’re going to  have a look at engaging those deep tummy muscles which sit just below the belly button, we’re going  to take a breath in through the nose and on the breath out we’re going to draw those tummy muscles  down towards the spine, I’m going to hold that contraction.

Throughout all of our exercises  you may wish to practice this a few times before moving on to the exercises in this video,  whichever exercise you’re performing it is really important to continue breathing throughout.  All exercises should be completed within comfort so please stop if you encounter any discomfort.  Your physiotherapist will be able to advise you on an appropriate number of repetitions  and sets to complete which suits your ability. Our first exercise is called the hip twist  starting on your back with your knees bent and nice and relaxed through the shoulders,  ribs and through your pelvis we’re going to slowly engage through those deep tummy  muscles then when you’re ready you’re going to take one leg, I’m going to drop  it slowly out towards the floor as far as you can without the opposite hip lifting,  keeping tummy engaged.

We’re then going to bring the knee back in towards the starting position  and at this point you may wish to actually relax those tummy muscles before re-engaging  and transferring over onto the other side, so again the other leg comes out and slowly back in,  with the option of relaxing those tummy muscles again, changing over slowly drawing back up,  relaxing the tummy muscles if you want to, re-engaging and then transferring  over onto the other side.

We’re now going to try an exercise called one leg stretch,  again starting on your back with knees bent nice and soft through the shoulders, ribs and pelvis,  okay engage those deep tummy muscles drawing down towards the spine and then we’re slowly going to  extend one leg, sliding the heel out along the floor as far as we can without any movement  through the pelvis, keeping tummy muscles engaged, we’re then going to draw the leg back up towards  the starting position. As before you may wish to relax the tummy muscles then draw them back  into contraction before transferring over to the other side, extending that leg all the way out,  sliding it back up, keeping engaged through the tummy and relax do it once more on each side  stretching all the way out and slowly back up again good, and then transferring over  and back up once more. This next exercise is the shoulder bridge, it’s a lovely exercise for core and glute strength and  spinal mobility.

Starting on your back with knees bent we’re actually going to start by  engaging those deep tummy muscles and then tilting the pelvis forwards so that we can slowly curl our  way up off the floor, so pushing through our heels to lift the hips up into the air we’re  trying to find a nice long line from our knees all the way down to our shoulders and then on  the return back down.

Abdominal strengthening exercises: Level 1

We’re going to drop through the ribs first then bit by bit through the spine,  roll ourselves down towards the floor once we reach the floor we relax those tummy muscles  and then when you’re ready again we engage through the tummy and it can tilt the pelvis, rolling our  way back up into the air trying to keep as I said a nice long line from the knees to the shoulders  and each hip at the same height on both sides, dropping through the ribs and curling our way down  back to the floor.

Let’s now move on to the clam, this next exercise we’re actually going  to be on our side, so what you’re going to do is you’re going to bend your knees,  keeping your heels in line with your bottom and a nice straight position through your back.  Using your uppermost arm in front of you for a bit of support we’re actually going to engage  tummy muscles in this position too, so engage the tummy drawing those muscles back towards the spine  then holding that position as we float the top leg up into the air, we come as high as we can  without the pelvis rolling backwards and then we’re going to slowly close back down again,  good, relax the tummy muscles if you need to and then re-engage and we’re going to come back up  again, nice and slowly and back down, good.

Once more engage the tummy muscles back in if you’ve  relaxed, coming back up and slowly lowering down. Lastly let’s try arm lifts in four point kneeling,  we’re now going to come onto our hands and knees.

Resting in this lovely flat back position,  to find that position we’re going to think about arching the back all the way up to the ceiling  and slowly sinking ourselves down towards the floor and then finding a nice comfortable medium  position between those two extremes which should be this lovely flat back position.  I want to hold that throughout the exercise, next we’re going to think about drawing those  deep tummy muscles up towards the spine whilst keeping that lovely flat back.

From here we’re  going to float one arm up in front of us as far as comfortable, around shoulder height is the aim  and then slowly lowering that back, down you may wish to relax the tummy muscles in between,  then re-engage and we’re going to lift up the other side again, up in front nice and slowly,  relaxing the muscles in between then re-engaging, lovely and the few things to think about in this  position is making sure that flat back stays and we’re not twisting as we transfer our weight side  to side. We want to make sure those tummy muscles are engaged throughout the movement as well  and we keep our elbows lovely and soft, we don’t lock them out. If you encounter any issues or have  any questions please don’t hesitate to contact the department and ask to speak to your physio.


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An Interior Designer’s Own Home at the Top of a Volcano (House Tour)

Caspers House is sitting on Paku Hill which is an old volcano at the edge of  Tairua, which is a small township at the base of the Coromandel. It’s very beachy, very relaxed. It’s a nice place to be with lots of surf beaches  and estuaries and stuff for the kids to swim in, which is one of the reasons we came to this  location in the first place. Our relationship with Glamuzina Architects started in 2013 where  we got them to design a house for us in Westmere. We had seen their work and we really liked  their style and the fact that they were kind of interesting and different and willing to kind of  maybe look at things from a slightly different perspective.

The orientation of the project is to the north west where the view is down to the beach and out  towards Tairua township. What we have here now is a building that has a large window  aperture out to the view but that is sort of obfuscated by objects in the way like as you  kind of come through the space it opens up to this kind of large amount of light and view.

I think the way the space kind of contracts and expands kind of helps guide you through  it a little bit as well, that kind of keeps the momentum and keeps you moving forward  and then it’s kind of like the prize at the end, you know. You walk through and  then there’s like the big picture window at the end with the view of the surf. As an interior designer, I spend a lot of time designing other people’s houses,  which is awesome because you get to kind of help them create a space that they want  to be in that’s specifically for them, but this obviously being my own home was quite different.

Generally there is like a level of  conservativeness in New Zealand and in New Zealand interiors so I kind of use my own projects as an  opportunity to really see what happens when you do something a little bit differently. The colour of the walls in the darkness kind of dulls your senses a little bit so it kind  of feels like you walk into like a comfy cave rather than a bright white stark environment,  which is kind of a little bit jarring. It’s a bit of a contradiction I think;  it’s challenging on the outside but I think it’s enveloping and calming on the inside. We really wanted to look at this idea of changing light through the space so there  wasn’t always just about this one point, there was also these other slits of light  that came in both horizontally down the site and also vertically through the roof. When we originally did the plan for the site,  it was really evident pretty quickly that we needed to look at this idea of a split level,  but we wanted to find opportunities within that that could create spaces so that split level  allows for other spaces to be hung within it; connected but slightly disconnected.

An Interior Designer’s Own Home at the Top of a Volcano (House Tour)

While this house does have an element of open plan living, I think the fact that the kitchen  is on a separate level to the lounge means that you can kind of escape from people. Also the fact  that there is the mezzanine upstairs means that that’s yet another living space and the bunk room,  which is also on multiple levels means that people can kind of inhabit the same space  but they don’t have to be in each other’s pockets. One of the things about this house is that across the day it changes it’s like a chameleon you  know and that’s why we kind of call it Caspers House, because it’s kind of like kind of ghostly  in nature.

We wanted to create this building that had a certain amount of height, that kind of added  certain amount of scale to the front. The kind of triangulation of the roof also kind of came from,  you know, sessions around other types of forms like A-frames.

  This material that we used is kind of corrugated, so it has this kind of idea of the shed and this  kind of really simple basic New Zealand material but then it’s fibreglass and when you get up close  to it, it has this kind of beautiful netting and you know, there’s different opportunities around  exposing structure or enclosing that structure and then that whole envelope becomes the roof;  it becomes everything. You know, so you get the sort of singular element from the landscape. My favourite part of the house is the bunk room. We wanted to create something that people  could live in and love but didn’t take itself too seriously and was a cozy little respite  from sort of everyday life and I think that that is the perfect example of it.

The mezzanine is kind of like, one of my favourite spaces.

You get out there and you’re  kind of sitting as high as you can in the space; sort of precarious you know, which is you know,  it probably runs back to this idea of we sit on the precarious volcano in the Coromandel perhaps. I feel very fortunate that for this particular project we worked  with teams of people that we had worked with previously because without them,  being so willing to kind of walk the path with us, we would have never ever have got here.  Building on a volcano is challenging to be sure, but of course, when you are up so high the views  you get are just so exceptional so at the end once you’ve completed it, it’s all worth it.

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